Nineteenth-century History
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Kings of Bavaria: Maximilian II Joseph

Kings of Bavaria: Maximilian II Joseph

King Maximilian II Joseph was the third king of Bavaria. He was born on November 28, 1811 in Munich and was the first Bavarian king to be born in Bavaria.
Nineteenth Century German History: Consequences of the Fall of the Holy Roman Empire (1806-1848) – Part 2

Nineteenth Century German History: Consequences of the Fall of the Holy Roman Empire (1806-1848) – Part 2

Part 1 of “Consequences of the Fall of the Holy Roman Empire (1806-1848)” Less than ten years after the fall of the Holy Roman Empire and after Napoleon was sent into exile after his defeat by the British, a congregation of monarchs and statesmen gathered together in Vienna in order to r...
The Caudillo and the Führer: Franco’s Spain and Hitler’s Germany

The Caudillo and the Führer: Franco’s Spain and Hitler’s Germany

Early in the twentieth century, a new and unique system of government emerged in Europe which would replace most of the age-old monarchies and eventually lead the continent into the modern era of democracy. Fascism, a form of extreme right-wing, nationalistic government controlled by a powerful dict...
Kings of Bavaria: King Otto I

Kings of Bavaria: King Otto I

King Otto I was the king who never reigned. His story was a tragic one that to this day remains unique in the history of Bavaria. He became king upon his older brother's death, but as he had already been declared insane and mentally unfit to rule, his uncle took over his royal duties as prince regen...