Nineteenth-century History

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Kaiser Wilhelm II After His Abdication – Part 1

Kaiser Wilhelm II After His Abdication – Part 1

Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated after the end of the First World War, but that is generally when he exits the stage of popular history. So what happened to him? What did he do in that time? This article aims to explore some of these questions....
Kings of Bavaria: Conclusion – After the Fall of the Monarchy

Kings of Bavaria: Conclusion – After the Fall of the Monarchy

The rule of the Bavarian kings ended with the German Revolution of 1918-1919 in the immediate aftermath of World War I. The royal family became enemies of the Nazis and had to flee Germany, but never gave up the dream of restoring the monarchy.
Kings of Bavaria: King Ludwig III

Kings of Bavaria: King Ludwig III

A long, tragic series of events brought King Ludwig III to the Bavarian throne. He was the monarch who was never destined to become king. He did not inherit it, but instead took it from his mentally ill cousin. Ludwig also saw the end of his family's 700-year rule over Bavaria.
Kings of Bavaria: King Otto I

Kings of Bavaria: King Otto I

King Otto I was the king who never reigned. His story was a tragic one that to this day remains unique in the history of Bavaria. He became king upon his older brother's death, but as he had already been declared insane and mentally unfit to rule, his uncle took over his royal duties as prince regen...
The Rise of Democracy in England

The Rise of Democracy in England

Today’s idea of democracy has taken centuries to develop and no other country has such a unique history with democracy as that of England. From the first Norman kings in the eleventh century CE, to today’s complex relationship between the English people, the monarchy and the Parliament, the proc...
Houses in Fin-de-Siècle Britain: Conclusion

Houses in Fin-de-Siècle Britain: Conclusion

Fin-de-Siècle Britain saw many new styles and innovations in the architecture of houses. Some of these new designs were visual whilst others were more practical. A mishmash of styles were created by a number of different architects in an attempt to redefine British architecture, but they would effe...
Houses in Fin-de-Siècle Britain: The Interior in Fin-de-Siècle Britain

Houses in Fin-de-Siècle Britain: The Interior in Fin-de-Siècle Britain

Middle class families, like their upper-class peers, took the interior of their houses very seriously. It was the primary means with which they could put their financial and social status on display for the world to see. As such, interior design was arguably the quickest developing part of the house...
Houses in Fin-de-Siècle Britain: Floor Plans and the Layouts of Houses

Houses in Fin-de-Siècle Britain: Floor Plans and the Layouts of Houses

The floor plans of Late Victorian and Edwardian houses began to reflect the continually increasing standards of living and the rise of new domestic technologies throughout the periods. Whilst working-class houses and the homes of the wealthy did not change much in terms of style or size, houses targ...
Houses in Fin-de-Siècle Britain: Trends in the Design of Domestic Façades

Houses in Fin-de-Siècle Britain: Trends in the Design of Domestic Façades

Façades in Fin-de-Siècle Britain changed quite significantly. Early in the period they were very similar to their High Victorian counterparts, but through the designs of architects such as Morris, Webb and Shaw, they began to transform. By the Edwardian era, however, they had become enough differe...
The Caudillo and the Führer: Franco’s Spain and Hitler’s Germany

The Caudillo and the Führer: Franco’s Spain and Hitler’s Germany

Early in the twentieth century, a new and unique system of government emerged in Europe which would replace most of the age-old monarchies and eventually lead the continent into the modern era of democracy. Fascism, a form of extreme right-wing, nationalistic government controlled by a powerful dict...
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The Role of Prince Albert in the Monarchy

The Role of Prince Albert in the Monarchy

In the first two decades of Queen Victoria’s reign, there was no one who played a more influential role in British affairs as Prince Albert, the Prince Consort. Upon the ascension of Queen Victoria to the throne, the state of the Monarchy was already in question.1 After his subsequent marriage to ...
Rocky Mountain Mining Towns: South Pass City, Wyoming

Rocky Mountain Mining Towns: South Pass City, Wyoming

There are many towns throughout the American west which serve as excellent examples of what a mining “boom town” was like. South Pass City, Wyoming is one such town. It is a relatively rare example, however, in that it has survived practically unchanged into the present and as such can b...
Nineteenth Century German History: Rise and Fall of a New Empire (1850-1918)

Nineteenth Century German History: Rise and Fall of a New Empire (1850-1918)

By midcentury a fairly clear picture was beginning to emerge that unification of the German states was going to be inevitable in one form or another. One of the largest and more pressing hurdles yet to overcome, however, was which state was going to dominate and lead this unified Germany. The key pl...
Kings of Bavaria: King Ludwig II

Kings of Bavaria: King Ludwig II

King Ludwig II was the fourth king of Bavaria. Of all Bavaria's kings, Ludwig II is arguably the most famous. His legacy is entrenched in Bavaria's collective memory as the Märchenkönig (Fairy Tale King) and his picturesque palaces and castles have changed the Bavarian landscape.