Nineteenth-century History

Multi-Part Series

Kings of Bavaria: Conclusion – After the Fall of the Monarchy

The rule of the Bavarian kings ended with the German Revolution of 1918-1919 in the immediate aftermath of World War I. The royal family became enemies of the Nazis and had to flee Germany, but never gave up the dream of restoring the monarchy.

Kings of Bavaria: King Ludwig III

A long, tragic series of events brought King Ludwig III to the Bavarian throne. He was the monarch who was never destined to become king. He did not inherit it, but instead took it from his mentally ill cousin. Ludwig also saw the end of his family's 700-year rule over Bavaria.

Kings of Bavaria: King Otto I

King Otto I was the king who never reigned. His story was a tragic one that to this day remains unique in the history of Bavaria. He became king upon his older brother's death, but as he had already been declared insane and mentally unfit to rule, his uncle took over his royal duties as prince regen...

Houses in Fin-de-Siècle Britain: Conclusion

Fin-de-Siècle Britain saw many new styles and innovations in the architecture of houses. Some of these new designs were visual whilst others were more practical. A mishmash of styles were created by a number of different architects in an attempt to redefine British architecture, but they would effe...

Houses in Fin-de-Siècle Britain: The Interior in Fin-de-Siècle Britain

Middle class families, like their upper-class peers, took the interior of their houses very seriously. It was the primary means with which they could put their financial and social status on display for the world to see. As such, interior design was arguably the quickest developing part of the house...

Houses in Fin-de-Siècle Britain: Floor Plans and the Layouts of Houses

The floor plans of Late Victorian and Edwardian houses began to reflect the continually increasing standards of living and the rise of new domestic technologies throughout the periods. Whilst working-class houses and the homes of the wealthy did not change much in terms of style or size, houses targ...

Houses in Fin-de-Siècle Britain: Trends in the Design of Domestic Façades

Façades in Fin-de-Siècle Britain changed quite significantly. Early in the period they were very similar to their High Victorian counterparts, but through the designs of architects such as Morris, Webb and Shaw, they began to transform. By the Edwardian era, however, they had become enough differe...

Houses in Fin-de-Siècle Britain: Architectural Features of the Home

As in all time periods, certain trends defined houses in Late Victorian and Edwardian Britain. These were not only visual, but also in terms of how the houses were laid out as well as certain features which were new to the period. Early in the Fin-de-Siècle, the features of a house were not much di...

Houses in Fin-de-Siècle Britain: House Architecture in Fin-de-Siècle Britain

It can be said that a nation’s architecture and national identity can be defined by the way it builds its own houses. Whilst this may be true to some degree, it is very difficult to judge in the case of Fin-die Siècle Britain.

Kings of Bavaria: Prince Regent Luitpold

The story of Prince Luitpold and how he came to power is a rather tragic one. Although Prince Luitpold was never actually king of Bavaria, he reigned in place of his nephew, King Otto I, who was declared insane and unfit to rule even before inheriting the throne after the death of his older brother,...
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